If you came to this page because of a concern about leptospirosis vaccine reactions, go here.
1/11/2015 Public health officials and veterinarians tend to associate the risk of your pet catching leptospirosis with standing water and rats. That is still a threat. But if you live in a typical US suburban setting, a greater threat for lepto (and other diseses 1, 2) to your pet is probably the presence of large numbers of raccoons and feral cats and our kind-hearted neighbors with an inclination to feed them - as well as those who leave food for their pets out-of-doors. (ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7)
Leptospirosis is a disease that affects many kinds of animals besides dogs. It occurs throughout the World.
The organism that causes leptospirosis belongs in a group of spiral organisms called spirochetes. They are similar to ordinary bacteria in many ways. However, they move and wriggle about in a spinning motion using their wavy membrane called a flagella. There are many spirochetes in nature, most living free in the environment and doing no harm. But two spirochetes have adapted to cause disease in your pet. They are the Leptospira responsible for Leptospirosis and the Borreia that cause Lyme disease.
are a very large number of leptospira. Currently, about 230 of them
have been identified. They are divided into strains (or serovars),
based on the characteristic of their surface proteins. Eight of
these are known to cause disease in dogs and cats.
They are: Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae, L. canicola, L. grippotyphosa, L. pomona, L. bratislava, L. automnalis, L. bataviae, L. hardjo, and L. grippotyphosa . The first four are the most common ones that infect dogs.
In the United States, the disease is always present in the environment for your dog to pick up. This is because it is perpetuated in rats, and wildlife, as well as domestic livestock. Veterinarians see more cases in the late summer and fall – probably because that is when pets and wildlife are out and about. More cases also occur after heavy rainfalls. The disease is most common in places around the World with mild or tropical climates. In the United States, it is seen more frequently in states with heavy rainfall. Winter conditions lower the risk because leptospira do not tolerate the freezing and thawing of near-zero temperatures. They are killed rapidly by drying but the persist in standing water, dampness, mud and alkaline conditions.
Most of the infected wild animals and domestic animals that spread leptospirosis do not appear ill. In these animals, the leptospira have taken up residence in their kidneys. The type of infected reservoir animals varies from area to area. In some areas it is raccoons, in others, skunks, in some, rats. When reservoir animals void urine, they contaminate their environment with living leptospira. These carrier wildlife shed leptospira intermittently. Sometimes they shed for months and sometimes for life.
Pets can become infected by sniffing this urine. More often, the leptospira are washed by rains into standing water. Then pets wading, swimming or drinking the contaminated water, develop the disease. Although this is the way that leptospira usually pass from animal to animal, they can also enter through a bite wound or through the pets eating infected materials.
Because of these dynamics, pets and working breeds that spend time in wooded or swampy areas are more likely to catch leptospirosis. Dogs that spend their lives indoors or in areas that are not contaminated by carrier wildlife are less likely to become infected.
Each species of wildlife has serovars (strains) of leptospira that live in relative harmony with it. We call these their “primary reservoirs hosts”.
Early in infection, these, leptospira are found throughout the carrier animal’s body. This includes their liver, spleen, kidneys, eyes and genital tract. As the animal produces antibodies, these spirochetes are cleared from most organs. However, within the kidneys, of carrier species (vectors), these leptospira are hidden from the animal's antibodies and continue to live in the microscopic tubes that carry urine out to the bladder (the proximal renal tubules). There, they are protected by a poorly understood membrane-bound protein mechanism. These leptospira and their host animals have learned to live together in harmony. However, when these leptospira find their way into a new animal - such as your dog - the harmonious relationship does not occur.
all dogs that are exposed to leptospirosis become visibly ill. In
a 2007 Michigan study, 25% of the unvaccinated healthy adult dogs examined in had
antibody to leptospirosis which indicates that they had been previously
exposed to leptospirosis without their owners noticing a problem.
But we do not know if these pet's long-term health remained unaffected. Chronic kidney inflammation (Chronic Interstitial Nephritis, CIN or chronic kidney damage) is a leading cause of kidney failure and death in dogs. You can read about chronic kidney damage here. Although there are many causes, this form of kidney damage can be one outcome of leptospirosis.
When leptospirosis does cause sudden disease in dogs, it tends to be most severe in unvaccinated dogs that are younger than 6 months old. These are the pets most likely to suffer life-threatening liver and kidney damage. In these cases, L. grippotyphosa is often responsible. It takes about 4-12 days after exposure for the pet to feel ill.
In dogs of any age that become ill, the leptospira spread rapidly through the pet’s blood stream, usually causing high fevers, depression and joint pain. Leptospira produce powerful toxins that can attack the liver and kidneys, leading to failure of these organs. Strains of lepto vary in their intensity and in the portions of the body they attack most severely. Some varieties primarily cause liver damage, while others concentrate in the kidneys. In other pets, blood fails to clot normally - leading to bleeding.
There are typical symptoms that veterinarians associate with leptospirosis. But because no two cases proceed exactly alike, not all of the typical signs are likely to be present in any one pet.
The most common signs are fever and depression. These pets are cold, shivery, and stiff. They may carry their tummies tucked up do to pain. Some drool and vomit and most loose their appetite. Fever causes many dogs to drink excessively.
Later in the disease, a few pets will develop eye inflammations (uveitis), nervous system abnormalities or pass red-tinged urine. As the disease progresses, the pet may become dehydrated due to the fever, vomiting and disinterest is drinking. A drop to subnormal body temperature is a very grave sign. A few dogs, particularly juveniles, will die suddenly before many of these signs occur.
When the liver has been damaged, the pet’s skin may take on a yellowish tinge (=jaundiced = icteric) and show all the symptoms of hepatitis. When the kidneys have been severely damaged, the pet may show the signs of uremia. These organ changes can be temporary – or permanent.
The symptoms that I discussed above, along with a history of your dog being exposed to places were leptospirosis lurks, might make your vet suspect this disease. Leptospirosis sometimes occurs in outbreaks, and your veterinarian may be aware that it is presently occurring in your community. If your veterinarian zeros in on leptospirosis on the first examination, you are very fortunate. Because symptoms vary so much between pets and because most veterinarians only see a few cases from time to time, it is common to miss the diagnosis on the first examination.
To make the diagnosis – or rule it out – your veterinarian will order blood tests (CBC and blood chemistry ). One of the typical signs found in blood tests as leptospirosis progresses, is an elevation in the number of white blood cells (WBC) in the pet’s blood. The cells that tend to go up in leptospirosis are the neutrophils. However, very early in infection, white blood cell numbers can be lower than normal. There are often other chemical abnormalities that suggest leptospirosis – changes in Liver enzymes, blood-clotting cells (thrombocytes) and kidney health values (BUN and creatinine). Evidence of damage to the pet’s kidney’s would also be reflected in abnormal urine analysis results.
There are a very large number of diseases of dogs that can give test results identical to that seen in cases of leptospirosis. These include ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, autoimmune disease, infectious canine hepatitis, canine herpes virus, canine brucellosis and certain poisonings. Because of this, your veterinarian may place your pet on antibiotics while another test is run. This is the leptospirosis PCR test. This test is extremely sensitive in finding the presence of leptospira in your pet’s body and the results can be obtained rapidly. Both urine and blood from your pet are submitted. After the first ten days of infection, antibodies against leptospirosis can be detected in your pet’s blood if it has encountered leptospira. However, antibody detections is not as valuable as a positive PCR test in dealing with leptospirosis. The antibody test can be positive in pets due to previous vaccinations or a prior exposure to lepto that has nothing to do with your pet’s current health problem. Occasionally the diagnosis can be made by seeing leptospira microscopically in the pet’s urine.
Yes, if the organism gets into your body, you can also become ill. You could experience any of the same symptoms I have described in you pet. The most common ways people contract leptospirosis is from primary or secondary exposure to infected dog or rat urine. However, a 2010 study found that you are very unlikely to be exposed if you take proper sanitary measures. You can read the article here.
Because urine is the most common spreader of leptospirosis, it is very important that you take hygienic steps not to expose yourself to your pet’s urine. Because recovered pets can shed lepto in their urine for months, you need to continue to observe strict hygiene even after your pet has recovered.
Here are some things you should do to minimize your risk: Have only one, healthy, family member care for the dog. Confine your pet to an easily-sanitized area of your house. Prevent exposure of other pets. Wear protective latex gloves whenever cleaning up after your dog. Take your dog out on a leash frequently to urinate. Only allow the pet to urinate on dry concrete surface that can be easily sanitized with bleach. When you are potentially exposed to any secretions or waste from your pet, disinfect your hands liberally with an iodine-based disinfectant. Doing these things will considerably lower your risk but not eliminate it entirely. Should you feel ill, you need to inform your physician about your ill pet.
The treatment of leptospirosis is much easier than the diagnosis. Fortunately, many common antibiotics will kill leptospira. Antibiotic resistance is not a problem in leptospirosis so ordinary penicillin, tetracycline and erythromycin all work well. Doxycycline is probably the best since it seems most effective in preventing dogs from becoming silent carriers of the disease organism in their kidneys after recovery (ref)
Sick pets require intense supportive care to get them through the early severe stage of the disease. Dogs with stomach involvement need anti-emetic medications to lessen vomiting. Dogs that vomit need intravenous fluids to stem dehydration and correct blood acid/base balance. Rigorous fluid therapy also helps flush out the pet’s kidneys and, hopefully, protect them from permanent damage. When the pet’s kidneys have shut down and toxins are accumulating in its blood, hemodialysis has even been used.
Many pets make a full recovery. A few go on to suffer chronic renal failure or develop chronic active hepatitis – neither of which is curable.
Yes it could. But since it is very uncommon for dogs to develop leptospirosis twice, we have little data to go on. We know from experimental data that your dog will remain immune to the specific strain of leptospira that infected it for as long as protective antibodies linger in its body. How long, differs from dog to dog. But it will remain susceptible to other strains of leptospirosis when they are present in its environment. Vaccines that are now in use protect against multiple strains of leptospira. If your dog’ life style continues to expose it to sources of leptospirosis, it should continue to receive this vaccination periodically.
Limiting your pet’s access to contaminated water is the best way to avoid leptospirosis. But there is another potentially larger problem. Feeding pets and wild critters outside your home attracts rodents and possible wildlife-carriers and should be avoided. Most urban Americans know that sanitation is important in reducing rat populations around their home. But few realize that feeding urban pests, such as raccoons, or maintaining feeding stations for feral cats also increases the risk that your pet (and you and particularly young children) will be exposed to leptospirosis and other serious diseases. Tinkering with the handiwork of the Creator can be a dangerous thing.
Your other option is to have your pet vaccinated. The American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) considers leptospirosis vaccine a “non-core” vaccine for dogs. That is, they do not recommend pets receive it unless there is a good chance they will be exposed to leptospirosis. The main reason for this is that veterinarians see more vaccination reactions following the administration of vaccines containing leptospirosis than any other vaccines. These reactions range from the minor inconveniences of pain at injection site, facial swelling and hives to a fatal anaphylactic reaction. Which pet will experience them cannot be predicted.
The immunity that leptospirosis vaccinations give is short lasting – perhaps a year, perhaps less in some dogs. Occasionally, the vaccine does not protect at all. Vaccine manufacturers have known the drawbacks of their leptospirosis vaccines for years.
However, in 2004, The Ft. Dodge division of Wyeth Pharmaceuticals came out with a multi-strain leptospirosis vaccine produced from leptospira sub-units (LeptoVax 4). Researches have long suspected that the cellular debris and other extraneous material that found its way into leptospirosis vaccines might account for the high frequency of vaccine reactions. This sub-unit technology is thought to allow only the leptospira proteins necessary for your pet’s immunity to be injected. Hopefully, products like these will be safer than the older methods of production but just as effective. But remember - no leptospirosis vaccination is without risk and it will take a number of years to evaluate these new products in the field.
you and your veterinarian must decide if your pet’s risk of
catching leptospirosis justifies yearly vaccination. In making that
decision you must ask if your pet frequents areas that may harbor
leptospirosis. You must also know if leptospirosis is occurring
frequently in your community.
You must also consider if your pet, or its siblings, have had previous vaccination reactions. Reactions also seem to occur more frequently in smaller breeds than larger ones.
I suggest that the first vaccination be at 14-16 weeks of age. It can be given as early as 12 weeks of age, but I seen no need for this unless the pup's exposure risk is high. I also suggest it be given during a week when no other vaccinations are give. Some high-risk work breeds receive leptospirosis vaccination more frequently than once a year. Obtaining a blood sample and checking the dog for protective levels of antibody is a safer option.
Vaccination does not always prevent infection – but it tends to make the disease much milder, if infection occurs. There is the potential for vaccinated dogs that do become infected to become long-term carriers of leptospirosis. Some long-term carriers have a more frequent incidence of reproductive failure and stillbirths.
Leptospira are very dependent on water, mud or damp clay soils to survive. That is because they do not possess a waterproof membrane to protect them from drying. Leptospira die almost immediately on dry surfaces - even if those surfaces could be contaminated with urine from other infected animals. Temperatures at or above 131F (42C) kill leptospira as well. All common household disinfectants (bleaches, alcohol based products, vinegar, lemon juice etc. Porous items need to be completely submersed in solutions) kill leptospira quickly ; as does a liberal application of detergent or boiling for 5 minutes. Standing water can be disinfected using swimming pool chlorine tablets (but realize that those products are toxic to aquatic life). Common industrial chemicals are so toxic to leptospira that obviously polluted effluent water is not as much a leptospirosis threat to your pet as are lakes and streams with water that appears pristine.