Why Is My Dog's Blood Globulin Level Abnormal ?
Why Is My Cat's Blood Globulin Level Abnormal ?
To see what normal blood and urine values are for your pet, go here
For an explanation of causes of most abnormal blood and urine tests go here
To see how tests are often grouped, go here
Ron Hines DVM PhD
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Your Pet's Blood Globulin Level
Globulins are one of the three major proteins that are dissolved in your pet’s blood (albumin and fibrinogen are the other two). The ones that interest veterinarians most are usually the Gamma globulins (IgG) that are produced by your pet’s lymphocytes and plasma cells and IgE, the globulin related to allergy. Those globulins (and their relatives) are also called its immunoglobulins or antibodies. Their level, and what they were designed to fight, often help your veterinarian decide what infectious organisms your pet has been exposed to and the strength of its vaccine immunity (its vaccine titer) or the general strength of the pet's immune system. Less frequently, an unexplained rise in a specific immunoglobulin indicates cancer of the cell line that produced it.
Reasons Your Pet"s Globulin Levels Might Be Increased (hyperglobulinemia) :
Ehrlichia infection in dogs and FIP disease in cats, canine heartworm infection, leishmania infection, chronic liver disease, lupus and other auto-immune type diseases, response to chronic infections and inflammations of many kinds, chronic and severe dental (periodontal) disease, Cancer of the cells that produce one or several specific antibodies (monoclonal or polyclonal gammopathies) myeloma can all cause high blood globulin levels.
Inherited Intestinal disease in basenji dogs (basenji immunoproliferative bowel disease), Familial Shar-Pei Fever (FSF, SHS) can also cause high globulin levels.
Reasons Your Pets Globulin Levels Might Be Reduced (hypoglobulinemia or immunodeficiency) :
Feline leukemia, feline AIDs (feline immunodeficiency virus) canine distemper, demodectic mange, and toxoplasmosis can all reduce blood globulin level. Blood globulins are always low in the new born – particularly if they did not receive their first milk (colostrum). Genetic immune system deficiencies (inherited hypogammaglobulinemia), reduced T-cell numbers or function, severe moist skin infections, cancer and long-term corticosteroid administration can also cause low blood globulin levels.
Inherited reduced immune function and low gamma globulin levels (combined immunodeficiencies) are occasionally seen in dachshunds, corgies, basset hounds, dobermans, shar pies, beagles, airedales and German Shepherds. Thymus gland atrophy (shrinkage) can have the same effect.
Total globulins (but not necessarily gamma globulin) can go down in chronic liver or kidney disease, miss-routed liver blood circulation (portosystemic shunts), malnutrition, severe or persistent hemorrhage, protein-leaking intestinal diseases (enteropathies) and when intestinal parasites (eg hookworms) are present in large numbers.
Globulin levels are naturally lower in greyhounds and possibly other sight hounds as well (2.1-3.2 vs 2.8-4.2 ) (ref).
Complementary Tests :
A:G ratio, TP, serum electrophoresis, bone marrow exam (M:E ratio) (+spleen/liver gamma G sources in cats), occult heartworm test