Dear Reader, All advertisements on this site 
are selected by Google, not Dr. Hines
If you have a cat that is + for feline leukemia
or feline AIDS and it received raltegravir 
(Isentress ®) = a human AIDS  medication, 
feline interferon omega, thiamine, 
niacinamide or slippery elm bark in its treatment
plan; I would very much appreciate 
knowing  the results. RSH email














American College Of Veterinary

Internal Medicine



ACVIM Small Animal Consensus Statement on Lyme Disease in Dogs: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention


Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume 20 Issue 2, Pages 422 - 434

Meryl P. Littman1,6, Richard E. Goldstein2, Mary A. Labato3, Michael R. Lappin4 George E. Moore5
1Department of Clinical Studies-Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, P 2Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinar Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 3Department of Clinical Sciences, Tufts University, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, N Grafton, MA 4Department of Clinical Sciences, Colorado State University, Ft Collins, C 5Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, I.
Correspondence to 6Department of Clinic Studies, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine 3900 Delancey Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010; e-mail merylitt@vet.upenn.edu.
Presented in part at the 23rd Annual Veterinary Medical Forum American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Baltimore, MD

Arthritis • Borrelia burgdorferi • Glomerulonephritis • Polyarthropathy • Retriever


The purpose of this report is to offer a consensus opinion of ACVIM diplomates on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Borrelia burgdorferi infections in dogs (canine Lyme disease). Clinical syndromes known to commonly be associated with canine Lyme disease include polyarthritis and glomerulopathy. Serological test results can be used to document exposure to B. burgdorferi but not prove illness. Although serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay/indirect fluorescent antibody assay titers can stay positive for months to years after treatment, quantitative C6 peptide antibody paired tests need more study. Serological screening of healthy dogs is controversial because it can lead to overdiagnosis or overtreatment of normal dogs, most of which never develop Lyme disease. However, serological screening can provide seroprevalence and sentinel data and stimulate owner education about tick infections and control. Although it is unknown whether treatment of seropositive healthy dogs is beneficial, the consensus is that seropositive dogs should be evaluated for proteinuria and other coinfections and tick control prescribed. Tick control can include a product that repels or protects against tick attachment, thereby helping to prevent transmission of coinfections as well as Borrelia spp. Seropositive dogs with clinical abnormalities thought to arise from Lyme disease generally are treated with doxycycline (10 mg/kg q24h for 1 month). Proteinuric dogs might need longer treatment as well as medications and diets for protein-losing nephropathy. The ACVIM diplomates believe the use of Lyme vaccines still is controversial and most do not administer them. It is the consensus opinion that additional research is needed to study predictors of illness, "Lyme nephropathy," and coinfections in Lyme endemic areas.